Much if has spoken on the ambient importance of the Amaznia, but and the social one? The Brazilian Amazon region, that engloba not only the state of Amazon, but also parts of the Mato Grosso, Par, Acre, Roraima and Amap comes economically being explored since sc.XIX. First with cycle of the rubber, later with the beginning of the extration of the wood and of metals and precious rocks (gold, silver, diamonds) and more recently with the exploration of the oil, of ores as the iron and the farming activities. Therefore, the vegetal extrativismo has appeared in recent years, as an important subject in the debates on development in the Amaznia, therefore the same it represents a economic option for a considerable segment of the agricultural population of this region. Although the limitations, this use of the land continues being practised for an ample gamma of the Amazonian population. E, even so does not exist given necessary on the number of practitioners of the extrativismo, many entities considerably believes to be high. In areas of unbroken forest, beyond the traditional seringueiros and collectors of chestnut, the extration of not-lumber products comumente is practised by the marginal population throughout the extensive fluvial net of the region (ITTO, 2006). This extration, exactly not being so lucrative how much to the others, it is of extreme importance for the survival for the population. However, the fast expansion of the cattle one, agriculture, the large-scale wooden extration and it I pan threat the busy areas for populations that depend on such resources. The concept appears then of extrativistas reserves, created for a small movement of seringueiros in the Acre in the decade of 80, that it aims at to guarantee the right of local populations to the exploration of not-lumber forest resources, such as rubber, chestnut-do-Par, aa, babau and others. This movement in favor of the extrativistas reserves gained force with the murder of the syndical leader Chico Mendes, in December of 1988.